Quick Images Using DotsHelps to develop ... subitizing, visualizing amounts, using groups and combining groups to find out "how many". How it works ... cards with various arrangements of dots are flashed quickly (3  5 sec.) in front of learners, giving them time to visualize the amount. Learners are then asked what they saw. Dot cards can be made to elicit specific visualizations and build on certain amounts. Cards can be made based on twos, fives, tens, doubles, or the visual arrangements on dice or dominoes. Why it is important ... it encourages learners to think in groups rather than counting by ones. Possible ways to use the routine ... To focus on perceptual subitizing (seeing groups):
To focus on conceptual subitizing (seeing groups together)
Dot cards can be scaffolded using this sequence  groups with different colours, groups with same colours, and then scattered formations. Questions to use to elicit student thinking?

The videos below show various examples to help understand the use of a ten frame as well as how to do a routine using dots. They include: a teacher demonstrating a quick dot routine using dots with her class, a quick flash game using the dots, as well as, an educator explaining how to use dots in general (not necessarily in a routine).



Ten FramesHelps with developing ... grouping, using the tenstructure and fivestructure, composing and decomposing ten, teen numbers, partpartwhole ideas How it works ... cards with ten frames are flashed quickly (3  5 sec.) in front of learners, giving them time to visualize the amount. Learners are then asked what they saw. Cards can be made to elicit specific visualizations and build on certain amounts. Cards can be made to build discussions around teen numbers, number fact families, and part,part, whole relationships. Why is it important ... it encourages learners to think in groups of five and ten. It also highlights the idea of teen numbers (a teen number is ten and 'some more') and can be used to build the big ideas of addition and subtraction. Questions to elicit student thinking ...
Possible activities ...
Additional Resources ... can be found on the resource page. 
The videos below show various examples to help understand the use of a ten frame as well as how to do a routine using the ten frame. They include: a teacher demonstrating a quick routine using the ten frame with her class, a quick flash game using the ten frame, as well as, using the ten frame for decomposing numbers.



RekenreksHelps with developing ... grouping, using the tenstructure and fivestructure, unitizing, composing and decomposing to 20 (or to 100 on rekenreks with 100), teen numbers, partpartwhole ideas, fluency and flexibility with number. How it works ... a rekenrek is rack with two rows of 10 beads. On each row there are five red and five white beads (to imitate five fingers on two hands, and five toes on two feet). Some rekenreks have a white panel that is attached to cover up some beads. Rekenreks can be used in ways similar to cards with ten frames. They can be flashed quickly (3  5 sec.) in front of learners, giving them time to visualize the amount. Learners are then asked what they saw. Combinations can easily be made to elicit specific visualizations and build on certain amounts as the frame is dynamic. Why is it important ... it encourages learners to think in groups of five and ten. It also highlights the idea of teen numbers (a teen number is ten and 'some more') and can be used to build the big ideas of addition and subtraction. Possible activities ...
See resource page for complete booklet. Questioning strategies ...
Using the Rekenrek as a Visual Model for Strategic Reasoning in Mathematics from the Math Learning Center (2008)_ 
The videos below show various examples to help understand the use of a rekenrek as well. . They include: an excellent explanation of the rekenerek which includes a clip of a K student using a rekenrek to problem solve, a teacher demonstrating a quick routine using the rekenrek with her class in a routine, as well as, examples of student use of rekenreks in K and Gr. 1.



Bibliography
Blanke, B. (2008) Using a rekenrek a visual model for strategic reasoning in mathematics. Salem, Oregon: The Math Learning Centre.
Dot Plate Advanced (Numbers 110). (2011, January 11). Retrieved December 5, 2015, from https://youtu.be/KRv5SYlaufY
Got Rekenreks?!?!? (2012, May 5). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lp_ogl2iH_Q
Introduction to decomposing numbers to ten. (2013, January 9). Retrieved December 3, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=366cj4x4DNI
K 1 Ten Frames and Dot Cards. (2013, September 19). Retrieved December 2, 2015, from https://youtu.be/EWyDGUUUDJE
Math Solutions Number Talks K 2 Rekenreks. (2014, October 29). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from https://youtu.be/pk9TbuAPQ7E
Rekenrek Activities. (2014, August 14). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from https://youtu.be/B4_YvwpIQwU
Shumway, J. (2011). Number sense routines: Building numerical literacy every day in grades K3. Portland, Me.: Stenhouse.
Subitizing: Developing Number Sense in K2. (2015, July 25). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from https://youtu.be/CYxV91A02Ew
Ten Frame Flash Game (110). (2011, January 25). Retrieved December 4, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRR9LK3zfho